International Conference on Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology - 4 minutes read

Pharmacology and toxicology


It is our extreme pleasure and honor to extend you a warm welcome to attend our auspicious “4th International Conference on Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology” that is scheduled on Oct 24-25, 2022, provides a wonderful forum to refresh your knowledge base and explore the innovation.

The theme of the conference is "Advancements in Pharmacology and Toxicology" and strives to provide you the massive platform to showcase your research work and the perfect chance to connect with top scientists, researchers, sponsors, exhibitors, and undergraduates from around the world and engage in conversation in order to promote a global conference for the announcement of original research results, new discoveries, and functional change experiences.

It would be an exhilarating, challenging, and a fruitful experience for our audience where the sessions will be carried out on topics like Behavior toxicology, Genotoxicity, Biochemical Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Drug discovery and Drug development, Pharmaceutical biotechnology, Biologic drugs, Pharmacovigilance, Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, Bio-availability, Bio-equivalence, Route of administration, Clinical and medical pharmacology, Pharmacogenomics, Environmental Toxicology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Drug Safety, Molecular Pharmacology, Microbial Toxicology.

Drug discovery and Drug development:

To find chemical compounds that could be developed and marketed, many strategies are used. For each new medicine licensed for use in humans, 5,000–10,000 chemical compounds must undergo laboratory screening, according to the status of the chemical and biological sciences needed for pharmaceutical development. Approximately 250 of the 5,000–10,000 compounds that are screened will move on to preclinical testing, and 5 will move on to clinical testing. It might take 10 to 15 years for a medicine to go from discovery to marketing. This section outlines some of the methods the industry employs to find and create new medicines.

Drug screening

Sources of compounds

A crucial step in the process of discovering and developing new drugs is screening chemical compounds for potential pharmacological effects. Almost all chemical and pharmaceutical firms maintain a library of chemical compounds that have been created over many years. In the past, a wide range of compounds has been produced from natural resources including plants, animals, and microorganisms. University chemists have access to a large number of other chemical substances. Additionally, tens of thousands of additional compounds have been added using automated, high-output combinatorial chemical techniques. Rapid, high-efficiency drug screening will be necessary to determine whether any of these millions of molecules has the properties necessary to make them into medications.

Strategies for drug design and production

Structure-activity relationship

The method utilized by Ehrlich to create arsphenamine, the first effective therapy for syphilis, is now referred to as a structure-activity relationship (SAR). Ehrlich essentially created a sequence of chemical compounds with similar structural properties and evaluated each one's pharmacological effectiveness. Many medications were later produced using the SAR methodology. For instance, the molecular structures of the naturally occurring agonists epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine were initially modified in order to create the -adrenergic antagonists (antihypertensive medications) and the 2 agonists (asthma drugs) (noradrenaline). After creating and testing a number of chemical compounds, medicinal chemists started to grasp which chemical substitutions would result in agonists and which would result in antagonists. Additionally, an understanding of modifications that might inhibit metabolic enzymes and lengthen the duration of action or boost gastrointestinal absorption started to emerge. Scientists were able to learn crucial details about the three-dimensional structure of the drug receptor site thanks to three-dimensional molecular models of agonists and antagonists that suit the drug receptor. By developing mathematical correlations between chemical structure and biological activity, SAR had been improved by the 1960s. The search for chemical structures that might activate or block different drug receptors was streamlined by this improvement, which came to be known as the quantitative structure-activity relationship.

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